Child abuse and neglect often occur in families under stress or in the middle of a crisis. Parents and other caregivers are sometimes overwhelmed by today's pressures and may not be able to cope with personal, financial or marital problems. Drug and alcohol abuse may trigger abusive or neglectful behavior, and there is a growing correlation between domestic violence and child abuse. Allen County Children Services is mandated by Ohio to investigate reports of child abuse and neglect. Casework staff is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week through emergency on-call services and local law enforcement.

In 2014, ACCS conducted 955 investigations and assessments; a 28% increase over the last five years. The majority of the investigations involved physical & sexual abuse. In 2013, ACCS conducted 967 investigations and assessments In 2011, the agency conducted 765 investigations. In 2010, 747 investigations were done. In 2009, Allen County Children Services conducted 655 investigations involving sexual and physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment cases.

Reporting sources include family, school personnel, social services, medical personnel, friends, neighbors, law enforcement, victims, attorneys and courts.